Nasal Index of the Hausa Ethnic Group, a Study Conducted on Students at Bayero University Kano
Background: Certain physical characteristics are used as criteria to distinguish between races, sex and ethnicity. Nasal index is one of these characteristics which are important anthropometric parameters that can be used in identifying an unknown individual in cases of mass disaster, war field or from unknown photograph of an individual.The aim of this study is to calculate, compare and document the nasal indices of both males and females of the Hausa ethnic origin and to find whether there is a
sexual dimorphism in the ethnic group.
Methodology: Two hundred and twenty four (224) male and one hundred and sixty one (161) female students from Bayero University Kano were used for the measurement of the upper facial height (UFH) and interalar distance (IAD) using the sliding vernier caliper. The nasal indices then were calculated from the measurements. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to describe the data with a confidence interval of 95%. A P-Value of less or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean nasal index of males was found to be 70.7 ± 11.3, and that of the females was 67.2 ± 8.3. Thus the males had a significantly higher nasal index (p<0.05) than the females. Sexual dimorphism is established with the males having significantly higher (p<0.05) nasal index than the females. However, the two sexes fall between leptorrhine and
mesorrhine (long and narrow nose).
Conclusion: The mean nasal index of the Hausa ethnic group is now determined and sexual dimorphism documented. This will be of help for the physical and forensic anthropologists, plastic surgeons as well as other clinicians.