ABO Blood Group Distribution among Voluntary Blood Donors in North Central Nigeria: The Implications on Blood Units Expiration
Background: ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion service. Everyone over six months has naturally acquired antibody against the corresponding antigen absent on their red blood cell membrane. Safe blood transfusion includes the transfusion of group specific compatible units to recipients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevailing prevalence of ABO blood group system and blood expiration, the bases for proactive planning of an efficient transfusion service delivery in our setting. Methodology: Serologically determined ABO blood group records of voluntary donors recruited from April 2007 to December 2010 were reviewed. Records of expired units were also scrutinized for similar antigens. Results: A total of 12179 safe donor blood groups were reviewed. Blood group O was most frequently encountered (49.0%), B 26.6%, group A 19.7% and AB 4.7%. Five percent of all blood units tested negative for transfusion transmissible infections were found to have expired within the study period with group B accounting for 44.6%, AB 32.5%, A 12.1% and O 10.8%. Conclusion: Blood group O is still the most frequent among blood donors in this environment, while AB is least common. Despite inadequate blood supply, safe units including all blood groups expired at the transfusion service centre. Group specific compatible blood transfusion should be aimed and planned for in a blood transfusion service. Linkage programme, monitoring and evaluation unit and component preparation should all be strengthened to optimize blood utilization and prevent expiration.
Key Words ABO Blood Group, Blood Unit Expiration, Transfusion Service