Hepatotoxic and haematotoxic potentials of aqueous extract of Cissus populnea whole stem in albino rats

  • Babasoji P. Omoniwa
  • Musa T. Yakubu
Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Haematotoxicity, Cissus populnea, Apartate transaminase, Haemoglobin

Abstract

Toxicity of aqueous stem extract of Cissus populnea (ASECP) on the liver and blood of albino rats was evaluated in this research. Eighty-four (84) male albino rats were divided into three groups that were treated for 7, 14 and 21 days. Each of the groups were divided into 4 of seven rats each (i.e. A – D). Group A received distilled water only and served as the control while groups B, C and D received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dose of the extract respectively. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last extract administration and their liver and blood collected for biochemical analysis. Secondary metabolite analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, saponins and terpenoids among others, with flavonoids (131.95 mg/g) and phenolics (172.47 mg/g) especially in abundance. Administration of ASECP significantly decreased (p < 0.05) liver aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities, serum total protein and albumin concentrations, red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and monocytes but significantly increased (p < 0.05) serum AST and ALT activities and white blood cell (WBC). Histopathological examination of the liver of the animals also revealed enlargement of hepatocytes, diffusion of nuclei within hepatocytes, distortion of hepatocyte radial arrangement and dilution of sinusoids following extract administration. Available results suggest that administration of ASECP at the doses examined can induce alterations in liver function and blood parameters and as such should be used with caution.

Keywords: Hepatotoxicity; Haematotoxicity, Cissus populnea; Apartate transaminase; Haemoglobin

Published
2019-10-07
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 0189-8442