Utilization of Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata Bodwich) fish concentrate in bread baking in Njala - Mokonde Community, Sierra Leone
Bonga fishmeal (BFM) used as Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC) in bread baking to address the problem of inadequate intake of protein at Njala - Mokonde community and also to determine acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers were bought from Tombo - the largest artisanal fish-landing site along the coastline of Sierra Leone. The processed Bonga Protein Concentrate (BPC) was used in varying percentage proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, where the zero percent served as control) along with wheat flour. The prepared bread samples were baked in a locally made iron oven at a temperature of 120oC for fifteen minutes. A 5-point hedonic scale was adopted to evaluate the sensory properties of the fish products. Evaluated samples differed in their proximate and mineral composition. 10% FPC had the highest percentage crude protein (33.67%), highest crude fat (3.64%) and highest crude fiber (1.42%) while the control (0%) had the least %CP (9.64%), least Cfat (1.06%) but not the least Cfiber. The mineral content of the 40% FPC was higher than those of the remaining samples except that 10% FPC had the highest Sodium content (0.86%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the sensory parameters evaluated. 0% FPC inclusion (Control) was like very much but 10% FPC was preferred while the 30% FPC inclusion was disliked much. However, to make 10% FPC inclusion the best accepted it was recommended to include additives to shield the strong aroma of the bonga fish.
Key words: Bonga, bread, FPC, Njala-Mokonde, sensory.