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Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment

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Utilization of Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata Bodwich) fish concentrate in bread baking in Njala - Mokonde Community, Sierra Leone

OJ Olapade, MA Karim

Abstract


Bonga fishmeal (BFM) used as Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC) in bread baking to address the problem of inadequate intake of protein at Njala - Mokonde community and also to determine acceptable proportion of FPC to wheat flour by consumers were bought from Tombo - the largest artisanal fish-landing site along the coastline of Sierra Leone. The processed Bonga Protein Concentrate (BPC) was used in varying percentage proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, where the zero percent served as control) along with wheat flour. The prepared bread samples were baked in a locally made iron oven at a temperature of 120oC for fifteen minutes. A 5-point hedonic scale was adopted to evaluate the sensory properties of the fish products. Evaluated samples differed in their proximate and mineral composition. 10% FPC had the highest percentage  crude protein (33.67%), highest crude fat (3.64%) and highest crude fiber (1.42%) while the control (0%) had the least %CP (9.64%), least Cfat (1.06%) but not the least Cfiber. The mineral content of the 40% FPC was higher than those of the remaining samples except that 10% FPC had the highest Sodium content (0.86%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the sensory parameters evaluated. 0% FPC inclusion (Control) was like very much but 10% FPC was preferred while the 30% FPC inclusion was disliked much. However, to make 10% FPC inclusion the best accepted it was recommended to include additives to shield the strong aroma of the bonga fish.

Key words: Bonga, bread, FPC, Njala-Mokonde, sensory.




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