Dietary patterns and associated socio-economic factors in rural Mozambican adolescents
Assessing food consumption in adolescents is essential for the determination of an appropriate nutritional status. This study intended to assess dietary patterns and its associated factors in rural Mozambican adolescents.
This was a cross-sectional study of 323 adolescents. A food frequency questionnaire was used and food was grouped into nine groups. An exploratory factorial analysis identified the food patterns. A principal component analysis provided food consumption scores in each factor, split into three groups. An adjustment of multinomial regression models was made.
Two diet patterns were identified: pattern 1 (fats, beans, meats and eggs, cereals and sugars) and pattern 2 (vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, chestnuts and walnuts). The proportional model for pattern 1 indicated highest consumption for adolescents with per capita family income equal to or greater than 78.13 meticais (Mozambique’s currency) and for adolescents whose parents had a formal job. For pattern 2, consumption was lower for adolescents whose guardians had high school education or more. The consumption in the first three quartiles was lower for individuals with an income between 1 and 78.12 meticais.
For Mozambican adolescents, higher income, education and parents’ jobs were predictive variables for consumption of fats, beans, meats and eggs, cereals, and sugars, while higher education and higher income implies lower consumption of vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, chestnuts, and walnuts.