Rheological, Baking And Sensory Characteristics Of Fermented Cassava Starch-Wheat-Cowpea Blends

  • HD Mepha
  • L Eboh
  • A Aron
  • J Ukpabi
Keywords: Cassava starch, fermented, cowpea, dough rheology, baking, bread.

Abstract

The rheological, bread making and sensory attributes of varying replacement levels (0-30%) of wheat flour (WF) by fermented cassava starch (FCS) and WF-FCS blends fortified with cowpea flour (CPF) were evaluated. Dough stretchability remained unchanged up to 10% replacement level of WF by FCS. The energy for dough deformation
(W), decreased from 316.1x10-4 Joules/g in 100% WF to 275.8x10-4 Joules/g at 20% WF replacement level. Fortification of WF-FCS blends at higher dilutions (30% replacement level) with cowpea flour gave alveograph values that were comparable with the 70:30 (w/w)% WFFCS
mixture but with improved R/L ratio. WF-FCS and WF-FCS fortified with CPF had high gelatinization temperatures (61.4-79.10C) and 71.4-82.10C respectively. Peak and cooked paste viscosities increased with increasing contents of FCS. Protein contents of composite breads ranged from 6.3-9.3%. No significant difference
(P>0.05) was observed in the bread characteristics of loaves prepared with 70:30 (w/w)% WF-FCS and samples fortified with 5 and 9% CPF. Breads made from 5-10% FCS supplemented WF showed no significant difference (P>0.05) from control (100% wheat bread) in sensory
panel ratings for crust colour, crumb colour, crust texture, flavour/aroma and overall acceptability characteristics. Up
to 20% substitution with FCS (80:20 (w/w)% WF/FCS) and 5% fortification with CPF (70:25:5) produced breads with acceptable loaf volume, specific volume and organoleptic characteristics.
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