Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Juice Inhibits Key Carbohydrate Metabolising Enzymes Associated With Type II Diabetes
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is a root tuber belonging to the Amaranthaceae family, which has recently become popular in Nigeria. The reddish purplish tuber and green leaves are usually eaten by boiling, roasting and the raw tuber can be made into juice. This study was carried out to investigate the in vitro ability of aqueous freeze-dried beetroot juice to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) by spectrophotometric methods. The percentage inhibition and its half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by beetroot juice with starch revealed that beetroot juice inhibited α-amylase (26%-73%; IC50 = 1.78 ± 0.13 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (53%-85%; IC50 = 0.77 ± 0.14 mg/mL) in a dose dependent manner. This was compared with the positive control acarbose which inhibited α-amylase (IC50 = 0.18 ± 0.02 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Beetroot juice may possess hypoglycemic effects and through these inhibitory mechanisms, it could be used as an adjuvant in the management of hyperglycemia and diabetes.
Keywords: Beetroot juice, carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase, α-glucosidase.