Incidence and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Objective: The objective of the following study is to determine the incidence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and identify the risk factors in RVO in patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Rivers State.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients with RVO who presented to the retina clinic of the eye Department of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5 year period were retrieved. Information extracted from the data included the demographic data of patients, presenting visual acuity, history of systemic and ocular disease, blood pressure and intraocular pressure. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. (IBM Corporation and its licensors 1989,2011).
Results: Out of the 364 patients seen at the retina clinic during this period, 27 (7.4%) had RVO. Seven patients had bilateral disease. The incidence of RVO in the retinal clinic was 7.4%. Systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and glaucoma were the main risk factors recorded in our patients. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) 20 (74%) was more
predominant than branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) 7 (26%). 21 eyes of patients with CRVO had visual acuities of < 3/60, while 7 eyes of patients with BRVO had visual acuities less than 3/60. Vitreous hemorrhage 10 (52.6%) was the most common complication encountered. All cases of non.perfused vein occlusion 4 (14.8%) were seen in patients who had CRVO.
Conclusion: The incidence of RV in our hospital is high. RVO is a significant cause of visual impairment, with CRVO being more common. Identifying associated risk factors and treating these could help reduce the incidence of RVO.
Key words: Incidence, Port Harcourt, retinal vein occlusion, risk factors