Comparative periodontal status of human immunodeficiency virus.positive patients and controls in a dedicated human immunodeficiency virus clinic in Nigeria
Background: There are diverse reports on the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive persons. Few studies have been carried out in developing countries in Sub.Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at comparing the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis of HIV.seropositive patients with that of HIV.seronegative persons using the community periodontal index (CPI).
Methodology: This was a comparative study of the periodontal status of 110 HIV.positive subjects and 110 age and gender.matched HIV.negative controls attending a dedicated HIV Clinic in a Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. The CPI and simplified oral hygiene index score were used in the periodontal examination. Highest CPI scores and percentages of CPI sextants assessed the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis respectively. Logistic regression was used in adjusting demographic differences in the study population. P . 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: A significant proportion of the HIV.positive patients 61 (55.5%) and the HIV.negative controls 53 (48.7%) had shallow pockets (4.5 mm) (CPI code 3). The prevalence of deep pockets (. 6mm) (CPI code 4) was higher among HIV.positive patients 9 (8.2%) than the controls 4 (3.5%) (P = 0.079). HIV.positive patients had a greater percentage of CPI codes 3, 4 and fewer CPI code 0 sextants than controls (P = 0.000). Both groups had comparable oral hygiene status (P = 0.209). Using a logistic regression analysis, HIV.positive status and lower education accounted for the greater severity of chronic periodontitis.
Conclusion: HIV-seropositive patients had more severe chronic periodontitis than the HIV.seronegative controls, which was independent of lower education.
Key words: Chronic periodontitis, community periodontal index, human immunodeficiency virus-positive, Nigeria