Expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in patients with chronic kidney disease
Context: Uremic cardiomyopathy is a risk factor of end‑stage renal disease (ESRD) and is responsible for high mortality rates and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes inflammation and is an important factor in uremic cardiomyopathy.
Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of serum macrophage MIF on myocardial hypertrophy in ESRD patients and to examine the relation of this factor to clinical characteristics.
Settings and Design: One hundred forty‑four patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were divided into three groups: (1) CKD, (2) peritoneal dialysis (PD), and (3) hemodialysis (HD) groups. A control group included subjects without kidney disease. Serum macrophage migratory inflammatory factor was measured using the Bio‑Plex cytokine assay and LVMI was measured.
Subjects and Methods: MIF was determined using the Bio‑Plex cytokine assay. LVMI was calculated by color Doppler ultrasound measurements.
Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses to compare data among groups included: The Kruskal–Wallis test to measure skewness of data and Spearman’s rank correlation test to measure associations among continuous and ordinal variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk.
Results: Serum macrophage migratory inflammatory factor levels were higher in HD patients (982.74 pg/mL) than that of PD patients (762.20 pg/mL), CKD patients (755.66 pg/mL), or healthy controls (336.81 pg/mL) (P = 0.009). Levels
were also significantly increased in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, and they correlated with the levels of other inflammatory factors.
Conclusions: This study suggests that macrophage migratory inflammatory factor promoted the occurrence and development of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with ESRD.
Keywords: End‑stage renal disease, inflammation, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, uremic cardiomyopathy, ventricular hypertrophy