Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and lipids in African women
Background: The metabolic syndrome is closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease. This study examined the prevalence of IR and metabolic syndrome as well as factors associated with IR among Nigerian women.
Materials and Methods: Eighty‑six women living in an urban area in Enugu, South‑East Nigeria, were assessed. Demographic information included age, residence, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco intake and were collected with questionnaires. Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were measured using standard methods. Fasting lipids, blood glucose, and insulin were measured. IR was calculated with homeostasis model assessment of IR formula. The ratios; triglyceride/ high‑density lipoprotein (TG/HDL), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL, and atherogenic index of plasma; log (TG/HDL) were calculated and compared with IR. Metabolic syndrome was sought for using both the WHO and the harmonized joint criteria.
Results: The mean age was 44.4 (13.1) years. Hypertension, obesity/overweight, and abdominal obesity were present in 31.5%, 81.1%, and 92.2%, respectively. There was elevated TC (62.2%), elevated low‑density lipoprotein (45.6%), low HDL (40%), and elevated TG (14.4%) levels. IR was present in 39 (45.3%). Metabolic syndrome was present in 25 (29.1%) and 17 (19.8%) using the joint criteria and the WHO criteria, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the joint revised criteria in identifying IR individuals were 48.7% and 87.2%, respectively, and for the WHO criteria, were 38.5% and 95.7%, respectively. The only significant predictor of IR was the presence of diabetes; P = 0.03, odds ratio = 7.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.19–41.88).
Conclusion: IR and metabolic syndrome were common. They were not related to any of the lipoprotein ratios. Metabolic syndrome had a low sensitivity in detecting IR.
Keywords: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, women