The prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated factors among patients admitted at princess marina hospital, Gaborone, Botswana
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem worldwide. Due to the asymptomatic nature of CKD during earlier stages, patients tend to present late, missing opportunities for prevention.
Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the risk factors associated with CKD in patients admitted at Princes Marina Hospital.
Settings and Design: Hospital inpatient setting.
Subjects and Methods: A case-matched comparison study was done involving 86 cases and 86 matches by gender and age (± 5 years) from March 21, 2014, to May 31, 2014.
Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software version 20 (SPSS Inc. Chicago Illinois) was used for data entry, cleaning, and analysis. Frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used to describe the data. Chi-squared test and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to analyze the associations of categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was done to control for possible confounding variables. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: In the study period, CKD prevalence was 74/550 (13.5%), and 23/99 (23.2%) of mortality occurred in patients with CKD. Over half of the 86 cases of CKD (53.5%) were not aware of their CKD status and were diagnosed during the index admission. Hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus, and HIV-positive status were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with CKD in the bivariate analysis, while HTN (adjusted OR [AOR] [95% CI]: 11.28 [4.56, 27.89]) and HIV-positive status (AOR [95% CI]: 8.68 [3.58, 20.99]) remained significant predictors of CKD in the multivariate analysis. CKD within the HIV-positive patients was significantly associated with duration of <3 years since HIV diagnosis and lower CD4 levels (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Significant admissions and mortality in medical wards are attributed to renal impairment. There is an urgent need to establish follow-up programs in high-risk populations (hypertensives, diabetes, and HIV) which aims to identify patients at early stages of CKD, and devise prevention mechanisms to reduce burden in terms of cost, morbidity, and mortality.
Keywords: Botswana, chronic kidney disease, risk factors