Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis
Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP. Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional, observational study, we included serial patients of CP in different stages and are grouped as ACP (Group 1; n = 67) and TCP (Group 2; n = 35). We determined serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25‑hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual‑energy X‑ray absorptiometry in the neck of the left femur. MBD was defined by the presence of either low bone mass (Z‑score <−2) or osteomalacia. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: The study participants (85 males; 17 females) had a mean age of 40.8 ± 12.6 years, CP duration of 3.7 ± 4.7 years, and Body Mass Index of 22.5 ± 3.2 kg/m2. A total of 37 (36%) patients had MBD (osteomalacia in 31 and low bone mass in 6). The frequency of MBD was same in the TCP (16/35) and ACP (21/65) groups (P = 0.1940). Elevated PTH (>70 pg/mL) was seen in 14 patients with 25OHD deficiency and low calcium (<8.5 mg/dL) in 29 patients. BMD did not show a significant correlation with the duration of CP. Conclusion: Occult MBD is seen in a third of patients with CP and is similar irrespective of the etiology. The disease is silent and mandates active screening in all susceptible individuals.
Keywords: Chronic pancreatitis, metabolic bone disease, osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis