Cancer-testis antigen GAGE-1 expression and serum immunoreactivity in hepatocellular carcinoma
Aim: To explore the use of cancer‑testis antigen G antigen 1 (GAGE‑1) in the diagnosis and potential therapeutic targeting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we measured the expression of GAGE‑1 protein levels in HCC tissues and its serum immunoreactivity in HCC patients.
Materials and Methods: We detected the expression of GAGE‑1 protein in HCC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We then analyzed the clinical significance of GAGE‑1 expression in HCC with respect to clinicopathological parameters. We observed positive anti‑GAGE‑1 antibody reactivity in HCC patient serum, liver cirrhosis patients (LC), hepatitis B patients (HB), and normal human individuals (NHS) by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The IHC results showed that the positive rates of GAGE‑1 protein expression in cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 43.3% (26/60) and 5% (3/60), respectively. The expression level of GAGE‑1 protein in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in tumor‑adjacent tissues (P < 0.05). Positive GAGE‑1 protein expression was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters (P > 0.05). Positive serum anti‑GAGE‑1 antibody reactivity in HCC patients, LC, HB, and NHS was 23.33% (14/59), 13.1% (8/61), 3.3% (2/60), and 3.4% (2/59), respectively. The frequency of anti‑GAGE‑1 antibody‑positive sera in HCC patients and LC was significantly different than that in HB and NHS (P < 0.01), but no significant differences were found between HCC patients and LC (P = 0.485) or between HB and NHS (P = 0.410). Positive anti‑GAGE‑1 antibody reactivity was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: These data illustrate that the GAGE‑1 protein exhibits moderate cancer‑restricted pattern of expression and immunogenicity, laying the foundation for the application of GAGE‑1 in immunotherapy and for the diagnosis of HCC.
Keywords: Cancer‑testis antigen,G antigen 1, immunohistochemistry, serology