Bleeding events in the emergency department with warfarin versus novel oral anticoagulants: a five‑year analysis
Background: Although warfarin is the most effective treatment approved to prevent atrial fibrillation‑associated stroke, it remains underused in clinical practice due to patient noncompliance. Therefore, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed. Aims: This study aimed to identify bleeding complications in patients who were taking oral anticoagulants and compare the rates of major and minor bleeding events between NOACs and warfarin groups. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of warfarin‑.and NOAC‑treated patients who presented to an emergency department between January 2015 and December 2019 with bleeding events. We compared patients with major and minor bleeding in terms of age, gender, comorbid diseases, type of anticoagulant, and site of bleeding. Results: An electronic search yielded 95 (21.9%) cases of patients taking a NOAC (i.e., dabigatran , rivaroxaban , apixaban , or edoxaban ) and 354 taking warfarin. There were no significant differences between the warfarin and NOACs groups in the frequency of minor bleeding complications. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the groups in the frequency of major bleeding complications. No significant difference in intracranial bleeding was seen between the NOACs‑.and warfarin‑treated patients, although the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly higher in the NOACs (P = 0.102 and P = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that rates of major and minor bleeding complications in patients taking NOACs are similar to those in patients taking warfarin. While warfarin was associated with fewer complications than NOACs in terms of gastrointestinal bleeding, the risk of intracranial bleeding, was similar between the groups.