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Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

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Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases

A.B Olokoba, L.B Olokoba, A.A.G Jimoh

Abstract


Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament of Treitz. The onset and severity of blood loss varies widely.Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that remains a common cause of hospitalization. There is no local data on the clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and the risk factors for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin. This study was therefore to review the cases of upper gastrointestinal tract bleed in Ilorin. Aim: To reviewthe cases of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding seen in Ilorin. Methodology: A retrospective review of the cases of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding who had upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy as part of their workup was undertaken to cover a eighteen month period from June 2006 to November 2007. Their clinical presentation, endoscopic findings, and the risk factors which predisposed themto bleedingwere evaluated.The endoscopy register and the request formswere reviewed. Results: Atotal of thirty patients had upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding for which upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy was performed during the period under review. Twenty-three of the patients were males (76.7%) while seven were females (23.3%). Sixteen patients (53.3%) presented with malaena only; eleven patients (36.7%) with malaena and haematemesis only; while three patients (10.0%) presented with malaena, haematemesis and haematochexia. However all the patients presented with malaena, haematemesis or haematochexia. The commonest clinical presentation of patients with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding passage of malaena (53.3%). The commonest endoscopic finding was multiple sources of bleeding (66.7%)
while the commonest risk factor for upper gastrointestinal tract  bleeding was NSAIDuse (36.7%). Conclusion: The passage of malaena, multiple source of bleeding, and NSAID use are the commonest clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and risk factors respectively in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin. The spectrum of clinical presentation, endoscopic findings and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal tract bleed found in this study is similar to that found by other workers.

Keywords: Upper, gastrointestinal tract, bleeding, Ilorin




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