Prevalence of activated protein C resistance (Factor V Leiden) in Lagos, Nigeria
AbstractObjectives: Hereditary resistance to activated Protein C (Factor V Leiden) is the commonest genetic defect known to confer a predisposition to thrombosis. This study aims to determine the prevalence of activated protein C resistance (APCr) in Lagos, and to determine if any association exists between APCr and ABO, Rhesus blood types, and hemoglobin phenotypes.
Materials and Methods: A functional APCr test was conducted on healthy adult volunteers to get a Factor-V-related activated protein C ratio (APC-V ratio). APCr due to Factor V mutation was indicated when the APC-V ratio is below a cut-off value that was determined by calibration. Subjects’ hemoglobin, red cell ABO, and Rhesus phenotypes were determined by standard methods.
Results: Six (2%) of 297 participants with normal baseline coagulation screening tests had functional resistance to activated protein C (APC-V ratio < 2). None of the six subjects with APCr had history of venous thromboembolism. One of the six subjects was a female but the male sex did not demonstrate a risk of inheritance of APCr (P = 0.39). Four (67%) of the six subjects with APCr were non-O blood group. Whereas only two (0.9%) of 226 non-A subjects (blood groups 0 and B) had APCr, 4 (6%) of 71 subjects with A gene (blood groups A and AB) had APCr. The inheritance of A gene appears to constitute a risk to inheritance of APCr (P = 0.03). No association was demonstrable between APCr and hemoglobin phenotypes.
Conclusion: Only 2% of the studied population had resistance to APC. The inheritance of blood group A may be a predisposition to APCr.