Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection in children with sickle cell anemia in Maiduguri, Nigeria
AbstractBackground: Patients with sickle cell disease have increased tendency to develop frequent and severe infections, especially of bones and urinary tract.
Objective: The knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of common etiological agents will serve as a guide to empiric treatment while results of urine culture and sensitivity are being awaited.
Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and children with HbAA in Maiduguri. Urine specimens were collected and cultured by standard methods. Sensitivity to 15 antimicrobials (based on availability of sensitivity disc) was tested using the disc.diffusion technique of stokes.
Results: Significant bacteriuria was obtained from 65 (26%) of the 250 children with SCA and 51 (20.4%) of the 250 controls. The isolates were E. coli, Klebsiella, Coliforms, Proteus, Staph aureus and Salmonella. Sensitivity was highest to 3rd generation cephalosporins, followed by the quinolones: ciprofloxacin (86.2%), ofloxacin (83.1%), and peflacine
(73.8%). Sensitivity of the organisms to some of the commonly used antibiotics like ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nalidixic acid was generally low. In general, the pattern of bacteriuria and their sensitivity in the SCA group was similar to the pattern in the control group.
Conclusion: Etiological agents of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to most of the drugs commonly recommended for its treatment. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, and gentamicin, are recommended as first.line drugs for treatment of UTI while awaiting results of culture and sensitivity. Ceftriaxone and
ceftazidime should be reserved for case of non response to first.line drugs and severe infections.