Metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus using NCEP.ATP III, the Nnewi experience
AbstractBackground and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is becoming epidemic and several studies have shown that diabetes is associated with increased co.morbidities and impaired functional health in the general adult population. Type 2 diabetes is one of the co.morbidities associated with metabolic syndrome that carries with it increased risk of cardiovascular
disease and death. The purpose of this study is therefore to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects seen at Nnewi South East Nigeria.
Design and Setting: This is a cross.sectional study in newly diagnosed diabetics attending a private hospital.Hope Specialist Hospital, Nnewi.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighteen (118) newly diagnosed diabetic patients were recruited into the study consisting of those who on routine screening were found to have elevated blood glucose or were symptomatic of the disease and presented for treatment.
Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 13. Studentfs t.test was used for continuous variables, and a ƒÔ2 test was used for categorical variables. In the analyses a P..value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Of the 118 subjects, 25 were removed from the study because their samples were lost as a result of prolonged power outage leaving 93 subjects consisting of 47 males and 46 females. The mean (SD) and the range of age was 55.27 (12.55) years, 24.84 years; SBP 153.52 (29.83) mmHg,100.230 mmHg; DBP 94.23 (15.42) mmHg, 60.140 mmHg;
TC 5.17 (1.4) mmol/L, 126.96.36.199 mmol/L; LDL.C 2.06 (1.55) mmol/L, 0.1.9.4 mmol/L; HDL.C 1.28 (0.48) mmol/L, 0.15.2.8 mmol/L; TG 1.75 (0.85) mmol/L, 0.50.5.0 mmol/L; BMI 30.30 (6.23) kg/m2, 188.8.131.52 kg/m2; and WC of the general population mean (SD) 96.86 (7.16) cm, range 84.112 cm; for men 101.40 (3.88) cm, range 85.108 cm and for women 92.22 (6.77) cm, 84.112 cm. Metabolic syndrome was found in 62 (66.7%) subjects of which 26 (41.9%) were males and 36 (58.1%) were females (P < 0.019). The prevalence of different components of metabolic syndrome was as follows:hypertension was found in 75 (80.6%): 37 males and 38 females (P = 0.635), dyslipidemia in 31 (60.8%): 19 males and
12 females (P = 0.572). Obesity was found in 23 (45.1%): 8 males and 15 females (P < 0.014). Of the study subjects 33 had hypertension prior to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Seventeen males had hypertriglyceridemia against 11 females (P = 0.357). Equal number of males and females (11 each) had low HDL..C (P = 0.603).
Conclusion: The study shows that metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients and the most common risk factor is hypertension.