Prevalence of β thalassemia carrier state in Sindhi community of Wardha and evaluation of risk factors for β thalassemia trait
Objective: To determine the prevalence of β thalassemia in Sindhi community of Wardha and evaluation of risk factors. To give genetic counseling to those diagnosed as carriers.
Study Design: Cross‑sectional (prevalence study).
Setting: Sindhi community residing in and around Wardha.
Study Period: 18 months.
Materials and Methods: A total of 578 individuals belonging to Sindhi community residing in and around Wardha in India were selected by systemic randomization. Those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and voluntarily gave consent were subject to Naked Eye Single Tube Rapid Osmotic Fragility Test (Nestroft). Those found positive by Nestroft were labeled carriers and advised to undergo Hemoglobin A2(HbA2) quantification for confirmation of carrier status. Carriers thus identified were given genetic counseling.
Result: The mean age of study population was 15.06 years with a range of 3‑28 years. The largest group consisted of those between 12 and 18 years. The prevalence of β thalassemia carrier state as diagnosed by Nestroft is 36.36% (200/550) and incidence of carrier state by HbA2 quantification in the study population was 17.2% (95/550).
Conclusion: Prevalence of β thalassemia in the Sindhi community of Wardha is higher than in other studies and equal to the highest prevalent communities in India. Thus, we recommend that urgent measures to increase awareness and control the disease be taken.
Key words: Hemoglobin A2 quantification, naked eye single tube rapid osmotic fragility test, prevalence, Sindhi community, β thalassemia