Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell trait in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria
Context: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is a major risk factor for developing acute cystitis and pyelonephritis, especially, among women with sickle cell disease. This study compared the prevalence, pattern, and microbiological characteristics of ASB in pregnancy between sickle cell trait (HbAS) and normal hemoglobin AA(HbAA) genotype subjects.
Materials and Methods: Culture and sensitivity of mid‑stream urine samples were collected from 300 HbAS women and 300 matched HbAA control at the antenatal clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria from August 2010 to December 2011. Analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence levels.
Results: Prevalence of ASB in HbAS and HbAA women were 32.7% (98/300) and 32% (96/300) respectively (odd ratio (OR) =1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73, 1.45]). Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in both the HbAS group (56.1%, 55/98) and control group (61.4%, 59/96), (OR = 0.80 [95% CI 0.45, 1.42]). The antibiotics with the highest microbial sensitivity were ciprofloxacin 90.8% (89/98) and gentamicin 100% (98/98) for HbAS and HbAA women respectively.
Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of woman with HbAA. Therefore, pregnant women irrespective of their sickle cell status would benefit from routine screening for ASB.
Key words: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Enugu‑Nigeria, pregnant women, sickle cell trait