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Nigerian Journal of Family Practice

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Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos Nigeria

A.B. Akodu, V.A. Inem, J.N. Ajuluchukwu

Abstract


Background: Hypertension and its related conditions have been recognized to be on the increase in developing countries. The roots of essential hypertension may extend back into childhood. Increased blood pressure in childhood correlates with hypertension in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. Genetic influence and familial blood pressure patterns are recognized in adolescents.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the blood pressure pattern among adolescents whose fathers are hypertensive while comparing the blood pressure of adolescents with normotensive fathers.
Methods: The survey employed a descriptive cross-sectional analytical study: The study subjects were adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers and controls were adolescents of normotensive (fathers) attending the medical outpatient and family medicine Clinics of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi Araba, Lagos. Data was collected using the seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure [JNC V11 REPORT].
Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 3.3% for SBP and 1.9% for DBP among adolescents whose fathers are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive (fathers) , only diastolic hypertension with a prevalence of 1.3% was found (P value < 0.05). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 37.9% for SBP and 20.1% for DBP among adolescents whose fathers are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for SBP and 2.7% for DBP was found (P. value < 0.05). Among the study group, there was progressive increase in mean DBP from 72.8mmHg at Age 10-13years to 76.7mmHg at age 14-16years and then 78.3mmHg at age 17-19years. While among the control, there was no appreciable increase in diastolic blood pressure with age. Among the study group, there was a more steep rise in systolic blood pressure when compared with controls. The mean SBP was 112.9mmHg at age 10-13years in the study group increased to  119.9mmHg at 14 -16years and finally to 123.4mmHg at age 17-19year. Whereas, there was a lesser increase among controls.
Conclusion: The study demonstrated that adolescent offsprings of hypertensive  fathers show increasing blood pressure levels with age .



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