Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in obese individual in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria
Background: Risk factor modification can reduce clinical events and premature death in people with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as in those who are at high cardiovascular risk due to one or more risk factors. Obesity, a common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Objective This study evaluated the CV risk factors in obesity and significance of obesity as a risk factor for acute coronary and cerebrovascular conditions which occur frequently in our society.
Method:Cardiovascular risk assessment was carried out in 250 subjects, 125 obese and 125 non-obese using the following methods: Framingham risk score, Gamma glutamy1 transferase, (GGT), CK-MB, very high single risk factor (VHSRF) and more than 3 high risk factors (>3HRF)
Results With the different methods used for the assessment, percentage of individual at high risk tended to be higher in obese individual than in non obese, only Framingham Risk score method shows significant difference in risk percentage (P < 0.05). High blood pressure is the most predominant risk factor among the obese assessed (37.6%). The mean value of all the variables (risk factor) except HDL were higher in obese subjects than non obese. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the means of FBG, HDL and GGT (P>0.05) whereas there were significant differences between the mean value of total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride, CK-MB and CRP (P<0.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, hypertension happens to be the most predominant cardiovascular risk factor observed among obese assessed. Obesity is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease because most cardiovascular disease risk factors assessed were more predominant in obese than in normal subjects therefore reduction in weight of an individual is very important to reduce cardiovascular disease.