Antibiogram of bacterial agents of lower respiratory tract infections in a central Nigerian hospital
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the major public health concerns in Nigeria. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults.
AIM: To identify bacterial causative agents of lower respiratory tract infections and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility profile to locally available antibiotics.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted at National Hospital Abuja (NHA). Laboratory data of processed sputum samples of patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection at National Hospital Abuja were extracted, reviewed and analyzed from 1st January 2016- 1st December 2016. RESULT: Out of the six hundred and thirteen cases, 89 (14.5%) had an established bacterial cause. The prevalence of LRTIs was higher in males (56.1%) than females. Age group 21-40 (25.8%) had the highest cases of LRTIs followed by those aged 41- 60 (20.2%). Klebsiellapneumoniae (52.8%) was the most predominant isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.5%), Escherichia coli (7.9%), Enterococcus spp (5.6%) and Proteus spp (4.5%). The predominant bacterial pathogens were generally highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and carbapenems.
CONCLUSION: Klebsiellapneumoniae was the most common bacterial causative agent of LRTIs in Abuja. Fluroquinolones, aminoglycosides and carbapenemsare antibiotics of good choice for empiric management of this infection in this locality. Regular monitoring of trends of this aetiologic agent and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile is important in effective management of these infections.
KEY WORDS: Antibiogram, Bacterial Isolates, LRTIs, National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria