A five-year review of nephrectomies at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (Lasuth) Ikeja Lagos
Background: Nephrectomies are performed for various reasons ranging from benign to malignant renal diseases. The surgical approach for a nephrectomy also varies with location. In Nigeria and many other developing countries, the major technique of performing a nephrectomy is an open approach.
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the cases of nephrectomies performed over a 5-year period at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and compare the findings with those from other institutions in our region.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. The clinical records of consecutive patients who had nephrectomies done over a 5-year period between January 2009 and December 2014 were reviewed. The data extracted from their record included age, sex, indication for nephrectomy, laterality (whether right or left), surgical approach, duration of surgery, the incidence of blood transfusion, histological findings and treatment outcome.
Results: The records of a total of 40 patients were available. There were 16 males (40%) and 24 females (60%) with a M:F ratio of 1:1.5. The mean age was 44.75 ± 17.16 years (range: 3-70 years). The indication in the majority of the patients was renal malignancy (n = 30, 75%) while the remaining 10 (25%) were benign cases ranging from non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys from pelviureteric junction obstruction to staghorn calculi. A total of 25 cases (62.5%) were on the right, while 15 (37.5%) were on the left. The imaging study done for diagnosis was majorly an abdominopelvic CT scan in 32 patients (80%). Twenty-one patients (52.5%) had a flank approach, while 19 patients (47.5%) had an anterior approach for their surgery. The mean duration of surgery was 140 ± 53.2 minutes (range 60-270 minutes). 27 patients (67.5%) were transfused perioperatively. The majority (n = 14, 46.7%) of the patients with renal malignancy had a histological diagnosis of the papillary variant of renal cell carcinoma. 32 patients (80%) were followed up for at least 3 years, while the rest were lost to follow up. The quantity of blood transfused correlated with the duration of the surgery.
There was no perioperative mortality.
Conclusion: Renal malignancies are the most common indication for nephrectomy in our centre. Though associated with a high transfusion rate, open nephrectomy (even when performed for a malignant condition) remains a safe procedure with a good outcome.
Keywords: Nephrectomy, Renal malignancies, Blood transfusion