Nigerian Journal of Medicine

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Prevalence and pattern of abnormal glucose tolerance in adult Nigerians with primary hypertension

OE Essien, EJ Peters, AE Udoh, JU Ekott, CO Odigwe


ABSTRACT Background: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus relate to one another aetiologically and prognostically. Studies show that hypertension occurs frequently in diabetics than non-diabetics. Data on the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive Nigerians are scanty. This study assesses the magnitude of this problem in adult Nigerians with primary hypertension. Method: Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on 124 adult Nigerians (64hypertensives, 60normotensives) to determine the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Plasma glucose was analyzed by the glucose oxidase method. Results: The hypertensive(32 males,32females) and normotensive (30males, 30females) had mean ages of 47.6+/-10.1years and 44.2+/-7.6years.The mean body mass index and waist circumference of hypertensives and normotensives were 30.2+/-80kg/m,100.8+/-17.2cm and28.5kg/m,88.5+/-14.1cm. The mean plasma glucose in mmols/l, during oral glucose tolerance test of hypertensives and normotensives, at 0hr, 1hr and 2hrs were,4.79+/-0.99,6.94+/-1.5,5.96+/-1.82 and4.42+/-0.90,6.25+/-1.02,5.05++/-1.8 respectively. The response to glucose load was significantly higher in the hypertensives than normotensives particularly at 2hours p<0.001. 62.5% of hypertensives responded normally to glucose load.32.8% had impaired glucose tolerance. All controls responded normally. 6.25% of hypertensives had impaired fasting glucose. 4.6% of hypertensives had diabetes. No control had diabetes. The hypertensives with abnormal glucose tolerance had higher body mass index and waist circumference, than hypertensives with normal glucose tolerance, and controls. Conclusion: Mean venous plasma glucose levels are higher in hypertensive adult Nigerians, than their normotensive counterparts. Impaired glucose tolerance is more prevalent than impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus.

Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (1) 2007: pp. 50-56
AJOL African Journals Online