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Congenital eye and adneial anomalies in Kano, a 5 year review
Background: Knowledge of prevalence and types of congenital eye and adnexial anomalies is important as some of these anomalies can lead to childhood blindness. The aim of the study is to determine the types of congenital eye and adnexial anomalies seen in the eye clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria between the years 2001 to 2005. To determine the proportion of children below the age of 10 years who presented with congenital eye and adnexial anomalies, the proportion of eye surgeries due to such anomalies, and proportion of these anomalies amenable to (surgical) intervention.
Methods: The clinic and theater registers were used to obtain the total number of children less than 10 years of age seen and those that had surgery during the review period. A list of those with congenital eye and adnexial anomalies was compiled. The case folders of patients with such anomalies were retrieved and information on age, sex, type of anomaly, laterality of the condition, and types of surgical intervention offered, was obtained. The data was manually analyzed.
Results: There were 4163 children seen in the eye clinic and 268 had surgery during the review period. There were 109 eyes of 69 patients with congenital eye and adnexial anomalies. The prevalence of such anomalies amongst children (<10 years of age) is 1.7% and surgery for congenital eye and adnexial anomalies accounted for 25.7% of eye surgeries in the study popularion. The male to female ratio is 2.3:1. In 40 patients, the anomaly was bilateral and it was unilateral in 29 patients. The commonest congenital anomalies are buphthalmos in 38%, cataracts in 35%, and naso lachrymal duct obstruction in 14%. Other less frequent anomalies are anophthalmia/ micophthalmia, limbal dermoid cysts and aniridia. Eighty six percent of the patients had surgery to correct the anomaly.
Conclusion: Most of the congenital anomalies seen in our hospital can lead to childhood blindness and vigilance by eye care providers is advised to ensure prompt identification and intervention.
Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 17 (1) 2008 pp. 37-39