The pattern of distribution of encephalocele in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital - A three year experience
AbstractBACKGROUND: Encephalocele is a congenital anomaly that results from failure of complete neural tube closure during foetal development. It is a known cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. This study was carried out to highlight its distribution pattern in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a three-year-period.
METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study of children with encephalocele admitted from January 2007 to December 2009. The following information were obtained from their medical records: sex, age at diagnosis, distribution pattern, place of origin, detailed antenatal history, maternal occupation/level of education, family history, associated anomalies and outcome of surgery.
RESULTS: 17 cases (10 females and 7 males) were seen over this period. 12 presented as frontal encephalocele while 5 were occipital. Their ages at diagnosis were: prenatal (determined by abdominal ultrasound) 5, 0-6 months 11, and 7-12 months 1. 9 of 17 mothers were unbooked. Pregnancy was uneventful in all cases. None had family history of encephalocele. 5 had multiple anomalies while 12 had only encephalocele. 10 patients had surgery, of which 9 were successful. 1 died in the immediate postoperative period. 7 patients did not have surgery. Among these, 3 died before surgery while the parents of 4 children refused operation. 10 mothers had primary education, 5 secondary, while 2 had attained tertiary education.
CONCLUSION: Encephalocele may be frontal or occipital. The distribution pattern of our cases was in favour of frontal location, with slight female preponderance.
KEYWORDS: Distribution Pattern; Encephalocele; Neural Tube Defects; Port Harcourt; Experience