The Clinical Presentation and Management of Zygomatic Complex Fractures in a Nigeria Teaching Hospital
BACKGROUND: Fractures of the zygomatic complex occur worldwide and are a component part of injuries that can be sustained in the maxillofacial region. The objective was to analyze the clinical presentation and management of zygomatic complex fractures.
Methods:This was a prospective study carried out over a period of five years at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Data documented were patients' age, gender, time of presentation, cause and type of fracture, associated head and maxillofacial injuries, clinical features, types of plain radiographs, treatment methods, duration of follow-up and complications.
RESULTS: Majority of the patients (n=81, 63.3%) were in their third and fourth decades of life while the male to female ratio was 20.3:1. Road traffic accident (n=111, 86.7%) was the most common cause of fracture. Fractures of the zygomatic complex alone (n=105, 82.0%) were more common than isolated fractures of the arch (n=13, 10.2%) and combined fractures of the zygomatic complex and arch (n=10, 7.8%).
CONCLUSION: While multi-disciplinary approach to treatment is important, majority of the fractures were treated by simple elevation and transosseous wire osteosynthesis. Delay in presentation, associated injuries and non-availability of mini-plating technique contributed to the development of complications.
KEYWORDS: Zygomatic complex, fracture, presentation, management.