HIV Sero-Prevalence among Pregnant Women in A Resource Constrained Setting, South East Nigeria
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection and AIDS is a public health problem worldwide, particularly affecting the populace in resource constrained settings like in sub-Saharan Africa. Women of reproductive age are most affected and infected with the disease.
METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study of pregnant women presenting for the first time at the obstetrics booking clinic of ESUTTH, Parklane from 1st April, st2009 to 31 March, 2010. Socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, pregnancy history and STI related symptoms were obtained using already prepared proforma. HIV Screening test was conducted in a serial two step approach using Determine HIV test kits and Stat- Pak HIV kits after obtaining an informed consent. Discordant results were subjected to Western blot for confirmation. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-info statistical software. P Value <0.05 were assessed as statistically significant at 95% confidence interval.
RESULT: A total of 1306 women were recruited, 66 women were HIV positive, giving a prevalence rate of 5.1%. Their mean age was 28.79 ± 5.06 years. Majority of them were married (9%).The mean gestational age at booking was 26.2 ± 6.8 weeks. Alcohol intake, history of 3 or more sexual partner in the last 5 years, abnormal vaginal discharge in the last 12 months, history of genital ulcer in last 12 month, had a statistically significant association with prevalence of HIV infection (p value<0.005)
CONCLUSION: HIV infection prevalence rate in among antenatal attendants in Enugu is still high. A multi-sectoral approach is required for effective prevention and control of the disease to ensure achievement of Millennium development Goals 5&6
KEY WORDS: HIV in Pregnancy, booking visit, low resource setting, Nigeria