Evaluation of nutrient and functional properties of doughnut made from the blends of wheat, unripe banana and ginger flours
Background: Most snacks consumed in low income environments do not provide nutrients in adequate quantities needed by the body.
Objective: This study evaluated the nutrients and functional properties of doughnut made from blends of wheat flour (WF), unripe banana flour (UBF) and ginger flour (GF).
Methods: The UBF and GF were produced by peeling, drying and milling the unripe banana fruits and ginger roots but WF (Golden penny brand) was purchased at a store. Fourteen blends was generated using d-optimal design. Proximate, vitamins A and C, magnesium, phosphorous, and functional properties of the flour blends were determined. The 14 flour blends were used to produce doughnuts and their proximate composition and sensory evaluation determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range test were used to separate and compare means, respectively.
Results: The results showed that supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) affected the functional properties of the blends and nutritional contents of the products. Increase in the quantity of unripe banana and ginger flours increased crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals of the blends. A significant increase was observed in the protein and fat contents as the WF increased. Samples 2 and 5 had the highest overall acceptability.
Conclusion: The blends containing 95% UBF and 5% GF had a significant increase in the crude fibre and ash contents. There was no significant difference in the sensory rating of doughnuts produced from samples 2 and 5.
Key words: Nutrient, functional properties, doughnut, wheat, unripe banana, ginger flour blends