Histological study of smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana on the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats
Background: Some of the effects of tobacco on man’s health are well documented in many scientific reports. Whenever tobacco is used either in smoked or chewed form, nicotine is absorbed by the lungs and oral cavity and is spontaneously moved into the bloodstream where it is circulated throughout the body system.
Materials and Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this investigation. The animals were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B, of five animals each. The animals in group B (treatment group) were exposed to smoke from a completely burnt 0.74 g leaf extract of Tobacco nicotiana, wrapped in 0.5 g of sterilized cotton wool for 5 minutes three times daily (7 am, 10 am, and 1 pm). The animals in group A (control group) were exposed to smoke from completely burnt 1.24 g of sterilized cotton wool with the same parameters as observed with the treatment groups. The duration of exposure was 5 days. Three hours after the last exposure, all the animals were killed by cervical dislocation. The heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and testes were carefully excised, blotted dry, and fixed in formol saline for histological analysis using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain.
Results: Using the light microscope, it was observed that the histoarchitectural profiles of the studied organs in the sections obtained from the control animals were well preserved. Histopathological observations of the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and testes in the treated animals showed a varying pattern of histological alterations, and distortions such as mild edema and occasional destruction of myocardial fibers, degeneration of the hepatocytes, reduction in the population of the germ cells, enlargement of the alveoli, alveolar hemorrhage, shrinkage of the glomerulus and glomerular hemorrhage were observed in the sections of the organs of the study of the animals in the treatment group when compared with the control group, hence showing that the smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana has adverse and compromising effects on the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and testes of male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Conclusion: From these observations, it can be inferred that the exposure of male Sprague-Dawley rats to the smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana may be associated with structural damage of some vital organs.
Key words: Cotton wool, histological deviations, kidney, liver, testes, Tobacco nicotiana