Clinical profile and outcomes of adult patients with hyperglycemic emergencies managed at a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria
AbstractBackground: To document the clinical profile and treatment outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) managed in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of hospital records of patients with DKA and HHS admitted to a tertiary care hospital over a 24‑month period. Data on demographics, precipitating factors, clinical features, serum electrolytes, duration of hospital admission, and mortality were extracted. Results: Eighty‑four patients were included in the study. Fifty (59.5%) were females. Ten (11.9%) persons had type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 74 (88.1%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There were 35 cases of DKA and 49 cases of HHS. Nine patients with T1DM presented in DKA and one in HHS. Forty‑eight (55.2%) subjects were previously not diagnosed of diabetes mellitus (DM). The mean±SEM age, casual blood glucose, calculated serum osmolality, and duration of hospital stay of the study subjects were 50.59±1.63 years, 517.98±11.69 mg/dL, 313.59±1.62 mOsmol/L, and 18.85±1.78 days, respectively. Patients with T2DM were significantly older than those with T1DM (54.32±1.34 vs. 23.40±1.38 years, P < 0.001).The precipitating factors were poor drug compliance 23 (27.4%), malaria 12 (14.3), urinary tract infection 10 (11.9%), lobar pneumonia 4 (4.8%), and unidentifiable in 29 (34.5%). Common electrolyte derangements were hyponatremia, 31 (36.9%) and hypokalemia 21 (25%). Mortality rate was 3.6%. Conclusion: DKA is common in patients with T2DM.Over 50% of the patients presenting with DKA or HHS have no previous diagnosis of DM. Non‑compliance, malaria, and infections are important precipitants. Mortality rate is low.
Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, precipitating factors
Nigerian Medical Journal | Vol. 53 | Issue 3 | July-September | 2012