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Paediatric HIV/AIDS in Tertiary Health Facility: Presentation and outcome of hospitalized children in Kano, Nigeria
Background: HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming predominant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality.
Method: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano (Northwest) Nigeria, to ascertain the presenting features, probable modes of transmission of HIV and the most prevalent infections among these patients.
Results: Forty six patients were admitted into Paediatric Ward between October 2003 to December 2006 with diagnosis of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. The mean age of the patients was 2+ 1.8 year (range 2 – 144months), 35(76%) of the patents were three years and below. The male to female ratio is 1:0.8. The probable mode of infection was vertical in 91.3% and through blood transfusion in 8.7%. Symptoms at presentation were fever of more than four weeks was the most frequently occurring in 82.6% oral candidiasis (78.2%) and diarrhea for more than four weeks 60.9%. The most common signs were oral candidiasis (78.2%), pyrexia (60.9%), wasting and generalized lymphadenopathy (56%) each. Commonly diagnosed infections were oral candiasis (78.2%), pneumonia (54.3%) and tuberculosis (39.4%). Twelve (26%) patient died, 65.5% are alive and being followed up in the clinic and 8.7% discharged against medical advice. There was no gender difference in mortality. Mortality was highest among infants.
Conclusion: The high rate of vertical transmission of HIV reinforces the need for effective PMTCT interventions in reduction the incidence of HIV in children. A high index of suspicion and awareness of modes of presentation of HIV infection in children is needed for early diagnosis of those infected with HIV.
Keywords: Paediatrics, HIV/AIDS, Hospitalized, Children
Nigerian Medical Journal Vol. 48 (1) 2007: pp. 17-20