Circulating Adipokine levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Lagos, Nigeria
Background: Type 2 diabetes remains a global concern with its numerical increase occurring in developing countries which include Nigeria. Adipose tissue-secreted factors called “adipokines” are involved in energy homeostasis and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.
Objective: This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating adipokine levels in the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), a-700 bed tertiary hospital centre in Lagos, Nigeria. 53 diabetic subjects and 27 non-diabetic controls with mean age (56.72±10.44) and (38.67±9.63) years respectively, were recruited into the study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA₁C, leptin and resistin levels and body mass index (BMI) were assayed.
Results: Mean BMI was higher but not statistically significant in diabetics than in non diabetics (diabetics 28.77±5.35; non diabetics 27.38±6.04; p > 0.05). Resistin level was significantly higher in diabetics ( 31.26±2.5) as compared with non diabetics (16.61±2.16) compared to non-diabetics. Leptin correlated very strongly with BMI (r = 0.620, p< 0.0001) and was significantly higher in females than males (female 9.72±1.70; male 1.79±0.54; p < 0.0001).
Conclusion: The circulating adipokines have variable effect on the glucose and fat metabolism. BMI and resistin level were higher in diabetics. Leptin was found in this study to correlate very strongly with BMI (adiposity). There was also a strong gender dependence observed as leptin level was signficantly higher in females than males.
Key words: Circulating adipokine levels, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Lagos, Nigeria