Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among participants of a communitybased screening in Nigeria using serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination
Introduction: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Nigerian men but CaP screening is not a common practice. The true burden of the disease in Nigeria is not known. The study was aimed at studying the community burden of CaP in Lagos.
Methods: During a community-based prostate cancer awareness program in 13 local government areas of Lagos, men aged >40 years had serum total PSA (tPSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE). Those with abnormal DRE or tPSA >95th percentile of the cohort or both were selected for prostate biopsy (TRPB).
Results: 4172 men were screened and complete data was available for 4110 (98.5%). The mean age was 60.8 years. DRE was abnormal in 410 men and was significantly correlated with the age of the patient and tPSA (p<0.001). The tPSA ranged from 0 to 438.3ng/ml with a median, mean and 95th percentile of 1.5, 2.5 and 10.0ng/ml respectively. 341 out of the 438(78%) men selected were subjected to TRBP. Forty-three men had histological diagnosis of CaP, giving an estimated prevalence rate of at least 1.046% or 1046 per 100,000 men of age ≥40. Only 11 (26%) had organ-confined disease while 17 (40%) had locally advanced disease and 15 (35%) men had metastatic disease. The majority of the men, 32 (74%) were reported to have Gleason's score of ≥7.
Conclusion: The prevalence rate of CaP among men aged ≥40 years in Lagos is higher than previously reported in hospital-based study. Majority have advanced and high-grade disease
Key words: Prostate, cancer, prevalence, screening, Nigeria