Patterns and presentations of colorectal cancer at Komfo-Anokye teaching hospital Kumasi, Ghana

  • Francis Agyemang-Yeboah
  • Joseph Yorke
  • Christian Obirikorang
  • Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu
  • Emmanuel Acheampong
  • Emmanuel Amankwaa Frempong
  • Enoch Odame Anto
  • Bright Amankwaa
Keywords: Colorectal cancer, incidence, clinical patterns and presentations, rectal cancer Ghana

Abstract

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and its incidence is increasing in developing countries. This study determined the incidence, clinical features and the histopathological patterns of colorectal cancer at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A retrospective review of all colorectal cancer cases over a six year period from (2009-2015) presented to the Surgical and Oncological Department of KATH. Patients' records were retrieved and information on their demographics, clinical and pathological presentations recorded. Results: In all, 221 cases of colorectal cancer were identified over the study period. The mean age was 54 ± 16.8 and ranged from 16 to 90 years. Sixteen (7.24%) had family history of cancer and the prevalence of comorbidities was (24.89%). The commonest clinical symptoms presented were weight loss (44.80%), bleeding per rectum (39.82%) and abdominal pain (38.91%) Majority of the patients presented with rectal cancers (48.87%). Microscopically, adenocarcinoma (68.33%) was the most common histopathological type. According to Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging of cancer, majority of the patients 89(40.27%) were identified as being in late stage (TNM Stage III). The overall crude annual incidence was 4.62 per 100000 populations. The age specific standardized incidence rate was 7.93 per 100,000 population Conclusion: This study has clearly showed a high incidence in colorectal cancer at KATH, with similar trends in clinico-pathological patterns comparable to that of most African countries. These include predominance of rectal cancers, high incidence among younger people and delayed presentation of the disease at advanced stage.

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