Effects of concurrent chloroquine and ethanol administration on the rat kidney morphology
Introduction: The use of antimalarial chloroquine in malaria-endemic regions of Africa is rampant and it is not uncommon to find individuals taken the drug concurrent with alcohol. Effects of anti-malarial drug chloroquine (Chq) and ethanol (Et) combination on kidney volume and function using rat model was investigated. Methods: 32 adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 8 rats each. Group C serve as control and received vehicle only, while Q is Chq treated only, E is Et treated and QE is Et and Chq treated. Chq was administered intraperitoneally at 1mg/100g body weight weekly and 6% Et in drinking water provided ad libitum. Urine volume was collected before the treatment began and after the treatment. After eight weeks, all animals were euthanized; kidneys were harvested and fixed in 10% neutral formalin. The fixed left kidneys were scanned with computed tomography and the scan slices were used to estimate 3-dimensional kidney volume on ImageJ. Results: Total kidney volume was none significantly increased in Q, E and QE treated compared to control groups (p = 0.5150). Also, microscopic analysis showed increased proximal tubule diameter (p = 0.1426) and epithelial hypertrophy (p = 0.2530) and significant urinary space shrinkage (p = 0.00001). The initial urine volume was not significantly different between the control and treated groups (p = 0.9864) however, following treatment urine volume was significantly reduced in QE rats group (p = 0.0029). Conclusion: The results suggest chloroquine and ethanol combination as potential cause of kidney injury through structural damage and function derangement.