Pan African Medical Journal

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Factors associated with tuberculosis treatment failure in the Central East Health region of Burkina Faso

Adama Diallo, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Ter Tiero Elias Dah, Souleymane Tassembedo, Romial Sawadogo, Nicolas Meda


Introduction: Tuberculosis treatment failure results in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, transmission and mortality. There are few data about tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Burkina Faso. The current study investigated the factors associated with tuberculosis treatment failure in the central east health region of Burkina Faso.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study. All cases of pulmonary tuberculosis failing first-line treatment matched to those who were cured (controls) in the Central Eastern Region were sampled from January 2010 to December 2014. Predictors of treatment failure were determined using multiple conditional logistic regression.

Results: A total of 381 patients with positive microscopic pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Of these 76 cases failed first-line treatment while 305 controls were cured. Weight loss between diagnosis and first sputum-smear examination was significantly associated with the tuberculosis treatment failure [aOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.7]. In addition, the delay from between treatment initiation to first sputum-smear examination, and high bacillary load at the first sputum-smear examination were significantly associated with treatment failure (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Strengthening the relationship between health care services and local communities to improve the follow-up of tuberculosis patients, and improving adherence to tuberculosis treatment among tuberculosis patients with weight loss between treatment initiation and 2-month sputum-smear examination could be useful to reduce the risk of unsuccessful outcome.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, treatment, failure, Burkina Faso
AJOL African Journals Online