Clinical forms of glaucoma in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

  • EA Awoyesuku
  • CN Pedro-Egbe

Abstract


Background: Glaucoma is responsible for 16% of blindness in Nigerian adults and the foremost cause of irreversible blindness among Nigerian adults. Clinical care of glaucoma must therefore be individualized to the specific forms of the disease.
Aim: To evaluate the relative frequencies of the different clinical types of glaucoma among newly diagnosed glaucoma patients in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).
Methods:  A retrospective study of all new patients referred to the Glaucoma Clinic of UPTH from December 2009 to December 2010. All patients had measurement of intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, slit lamp examination with +78D super field lens and central visual field analysis. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on cupping and atrophy of the optic disc, visual field loss, with or without raised intraocular pressure. Patients so diagnosed were classified according to the European Glaucoma guidelines as Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) including Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG), Secondary Open Angle Glaucoma (SOAG), Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG), and Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma (SACG).
Results:  Ninety-eight patients were studied. Of this, 52% were males and 48% females; their mean age was 49.70±14.06 years. The distribution of the clinical forms of glaucoma were as follows: Congenital Glaucoma (CG) 1 %( n=1), JOAG 3.1 %( n=3), PACG 3.1% (n=3), SOAG 5.1% (n=5), SACG 11.2% (n=11), NTG 14.3%(n=14) and POAG 62.2%(n=61).  More than 75% of the patients were over 40 years with a peak presentation in the sixth decade.
Conclusion: Primary Open Angle Glaucoma was the most prevalent subtype of the disease in this study. Peak presentation was in the sixth decade of life.
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