Biochemical effect of varied mixtures of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gnetum africanum (Okazi leaf) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats
Diabetes mellitus is prevalent in many countries of the world, affecting all ages both in developing and developed nations. The use of plants as remedies or preventive therapies has increased over the years. The study investigated the biochemical changes caused by combined leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Gnetum africanum (okazi leaf) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats.Aqueous extracts of the leaves were prepared using the conventional method.Forty male wistar rats weighing 150-180g were grouped into eight (five rats each). Group 1 was the normal control while diabetes was induced using alloxan (160mg/ kg)in groups 2-8.Group 2 received no treatment while groups 3-7 received varied ratios of the extracts at (BI/OK|10:90%), (BI/OK|30:70%), (BI/OK|50:50%), (BI/OK|70:30%) and (BI/OK|90:10%). Group 8 was the diabetic control treated with the standard diabetic drug (Metformin). The animals were weighed and blood glucose was determined at 7-day intervals. They were sacrificed on the 28th day and blood samples collected for serum protein, serum electrolyte, urea, creatinine, liver enzymes and markers of oxidative stress analyses. The results showed steady increase in the body weights (g) of the rats with (BI/OK|70:30)% treated group showing the highest increase (175.40±1.28). The fasting blood sugar (mg/dl) showed timedependent reduction in all the treated diabeti groups with (BI/OK|90:10)% having the highest (56.20±1.65) reduction. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in total blood protein concentration (g/dl) in all the treated groups. The results of this study showed time and ratio dependent effect on the parameters measured. Since the two plants are staple vegetables in some countries, their utilization particularly in appropriate combinations should be encouraged.