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Characterization and health risk assessment of consumed herbal and energy drinks in some south-west states, Nigeria.

Temitope M. Osobamiro
Mayowa S. Adebisi
Peter K. Mensah


This study determines the physicochemical properties and concentrations of heavy metals in eighteen energy drinks (ED) and twelve herbal mixtures (HM) purchased from two markets in South-West, Nigeria. Physiochemical properties and metal contents were determined using standard methods and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) respectively. The health risk was estimated by calculating the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI) and Carcinogenic Risk (CR). The result of physiochemical properties are as follows: pH ≤ (5.53, 6.09), TDS ≤ (95.2, 846) and EC ≤ (194, 787). The concentrations of As and heavy metals (mg/L) in ED and HM were ≤; As (0.006, 0.001), Cd (0.008, 0.007), Co (0.007, 0.004), Cr (0.008, 0.052), Cu (0.061, 0.007), Fe (15.0, 7.28), Mn (2.03, 2.29), Ni (0.010, 0.004), Pb (0.016, 0.005) and Zn (8.86, 4.02). Levels in ED were higher than HM except for Cr and Mn and all were within the permissible levels except Co, Fe, Mn and Zn in some ED and HM samples. The HQ and total HQ for all the metals in ED and HM are less than 1.00 except Mn and Zn while, total HI was 5.21. Carcinogenic risk of Cd and Pb in most of the HM were above the acceptable limit so, long term consumption should be discouraged.

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eISSN: 1118-1931
print ISSN: 1118-1931