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Statistical modelling and optimization of FS-welded 6061-T651 Aluminum alloy

I. Uchegbulam
A. J. Tonye


An RSM-based experimental design, mathematical modelling and statistical optimization of friction stir welding process parameters was studied. A quadratic fitting model developed from a five-leveled four-factor parametric setting predicted the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the welded AA6061- T651 joints. Statistical analysis at 95% Confidence Interval using ANOVA validated the conformity of the developed model with experimental data and also verified the adequacy of the model for UTS prediction and optimization. Results showed that the model was statistically significant (p<0.0001) with no notable lack of fit with the four parameters and their squared terms also significant statistically. The numerical optimization resulted to an optimum UTS of 166.32MPa from rotational speed, traversing speed, tool tilt angle and axial load values of 1293.641rpm, 48.467mm/min, 1.888° and 4.720kN, respectively with a desirability of 0.944. Also, 2D contour and 3D surface plots showed that the four parameters made decreasing effects on the UTS after reaching their optimized UTS. Driving forces for high UTS were: sufficient heat generation for plastic deformation, effective material coalescence, appropriate extrusion of molten material towards the trailing edge, adequate heat and mass transfer to control grain coarsening, void and flash formations. With an SN-ratio of 45.963 and low coefficient-of-variation of 1.11%, the conformity of the predicted and adjusted regression coefficients (R²) of 0.9619 and 0.9868 respectively supported by the confirmatory test and diagnostic plots showed a strong correlation between the experimental and predicted results. These demonstrated that the developed model was sufficient for predicting and optimizing the UTS of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) AA6061T651 plates.

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eISSN: 1118-1931
print ISSN: 1118-1931