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Validation of the Sleep Quality Questionnaire among senior students in Benin City, Nigeria

Oluyemi Akanni
Anthony Olashore
Olaide Koleoso


Background: The Sleep Quality Questionnaire (SQQ) is a short and easy-to-understand resourceful tool for measuring poor sleep quality; however, it remains to be validated.
Aim: The focus of this study is to determine its reliability and validity among Nigerian adolescents.
Setting: Four gender-mixed schools within Benin City, Nigeria were selected to participate in the study.
Methods: Questionnaires containing the SQQ, the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI), which is a validated scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) from 377 students selected from the junior and senior secondary school students were analysed.
Results: The mean age calculated was 14.78 years for 174 male and 203 female students. Cronbach’s alpha for the SQQ scale was 0.70. It correlated strongly with the SCI (rho = 0.93, p = 0.00), weakly with the HADS depression (rho = -0.19, p < 0.01) and anxiety (rho = -0.30, p < 0.01), but had no association with gender. Factor analysis revealed three factors with an eigenvalue greater than 1. Factors 1–3 accounted for 31.78%, 15.16% and 11.26% of the variance, respectively, totalling 58.2%. The reliability of each of the three factors was as follows: factor 1, 0.75; factor 2, 0.47; and factor 3, 0.62. The SQQ demonstrated good specificity and sensitivity at a cut-off point of 18.
Conclusion: It is therefore recommended that the SQQ be included in the screening of sleeprelated problems in adolescents, both in the primary and secondary care settings in Nigeria.
Contribution: The research shows that the Sleep Quality Questionnaire is both a reliable and valid screening tool among adolescents in Nigeria. Its brevity and simplicity further promote its use in clinical and non-clinical settings.

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eISSN: 2078-6786
print ISSN: 1608-9685