Outcomes of prostate artery embolisation for benign prostatic hyperplasia in 10 cases at Steve Biko Academic Hospital
Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) remains a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in ageing men in South Africa and can impact significantly on the quality of life (QOL) of these patients. The Urology Department at Steve Biko Academic Hospital (SBAH) can generally only offer men with LUTS the following treatment options: watchful waiting, medical treatment and surgical management. In men with symptomatic BPH, who are refractory to medical treatment, where anaesthesia is contra-indicated because of co-morbidities or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is contra-indicated because of the prostate size, the Urology and Radiology departments at SBAH recently introduced prostate artery embolisation (PAE).
Aim: To assess the outcome of PAE in 10 men with LUTS, secondary to BPH, by comparing their urinary symptoms, QOL and prostate volume before and 3 months after they underwent PAE in the Radiology Department at SBAH.
Method: The review included the first 10 men who had undergone therapeutic PAE for symptomatic BPH from May 2016 to September 2016. The subjective symptomatic feedback was assessed according to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Global Quality of Life questionnaire, created by the American Urological Association (AUA). The reduction in the size of the prostate was measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results: Embolisation was technically achieved in all 10 patients. Bilateral embolisation was performed on nine patients. One patient received unilateral embolisation secondary to unilateral tortuous and atherosclerotic changes of the iliac arteries. Within the 3-month followup, the mean IPSS score improved by 15.7 points (p < 0.0039), the mean QOL improved by 4.1 points (p < 0.0039) and the mean prostate volume reduction was 21.8 mL (p < 0.0039). Despite improvements observed, there was one clinical failure. No major complications were reported that increased hospital stay, required hospital readmission or required surgery.
Conclusion: The study on the first 10 PAE performed in SBAH concludes that PAE is a safe and effective procedure with favourable short-term follow-up results. This indicates that PAE can safely be offered to patients, who are refractory to medical treatment and not suitable candidates for surgery, in urology departments such as in SBAH.