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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and gadolinium-based contrast media

PS Ngoya
Z Vawda
JW Lotz


Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. The first known case occurred in 1997, after the use of  gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at high doses in patients with renal failure had become routine. An overwhelming majority occurred within weeks to months after injection of a GBCA. The link between nephrogenic
systemic fibrosis (NSF) and GBCAs was recognised in 2006. This note  comprises guidelines on the prevention of NSF.