Status of individual, household and environmental sanitary practices in relation to intestinal parasitic infections among patients visiting Hara health center, Tehuledere District, northeast Ethiopia
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are among the most common diseases-of-poverty. Current information on the magnitude of the problem in relation to individual, household and environmental sanitary practices in a locality is vital to devise fitting control strategies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to assess the occurrence of IPIs and associated sanitary practices among patients visiting Hara health center, Tehuledere District, northeast Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 involving participants recruited through the convenience sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used to capture environmental, socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to IPIs. Stool specimens were collected and examined for the existence of IPIs using the direct-saline wet mount technique. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done with p-value less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Fecal samples from 430 individuals were analyzed in the study. Among these participants, 251(58.4%) were males and 179(41.6%) females with 213 (49.5%) in the age group ≥15 years, 190(44.2%) 6-14 years and 27(6.3%) 1-5 years old (range 67-1, median (IQR):14(9.0-27.7) and mean ± SD: 20.13±14.35). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42.3% (182/430). Seven intestinal parasite species were detected. The predominant parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (42(33.0%)), followed by Giardia intestinalis (26(6.1%)), Enterobius vermicularis (5(1.2%)), taeniid species (5(1.2%)), Trichuris trichiura (2(0.5%)), Hymenolepis nana (1(0.2%)) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1(0.2%)). The study showed that river/stream drinking water source (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)) 2.954, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.140-6.192, p<0.0001)), rare pre-meal hand washing (AOR 2.647, 95% CI 1.194-5.871, p 0.017), no post-toilet hand washing (aor 3.396, 95% CI 1.454-7.931, p 0.005), untreated drinking water (AOR 2.745, 95% CI 1.137-6.626, P 0.025), open-field defecation (AOR 2.517, 95% CI 1.037-6.109, p 0.014), rural residence (AOR 2.157, 95% CI 1.178-3.950, p 0.013) and 5-14 years age (AOR 7.984, 95% CI 4.346-14.667, p<0.0001) were significant predictors of IPIs-positivity . IPIs were a common health problem in the study area. Health education on personal and environmental hygiene coupled with improved accessibility to safe drinking water is needed.