Frequency of Rotavirus Infection among Children with Diarrhea in Omdurman Pediatric Hospital, Sudan
Background: Rotaviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Basic epidemiological data concerning rotaviruses among infants and children are necessary for health planners and care providers in Sudan.
Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted at Omdurman Pediatric Hospital, Sudan to investigate the frequency of rotavirus infection and associated possible risk factors among children. The solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect rotavirus antigens. Structured questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic data.
Results: Out of 92 diarrheal cases, 23 were rotavirus-antigen positive (25%). Most of the positive subjects (91.3%) were in children less than 3 years of age and the infection rate decreased with the increasing age (p>.05). Children infected with rotaviruses were more likely to have vomiting (82.6%) (p > 0.05) and fairly low frequency of fever (60.9%) (p > 0.05). Out of the 23 rotavirus positive subjects, 13 (30.2%) were breast-fed, 6 (25%) were both breast and bottle-fed and 4 (16.6%) were neither breast nor bottle-fed (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the antibiotic treated children revealed the highest percentage of rotavirus antigen (26.9%) compared to the non-treated children (14.3%).
Conclusion: Rotavirus frequency was 25% among children less than 5 years. Rotavirus vaccine, routine and proper diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children with acute diarrhea help to determine appropriate treatment, prevents the unnecessary use of antibiotics and minimizes the spread of the disease among susceptible children in Sudan.
Keywords: Rotavirus, Antigens, Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Infants, Children.