Gastroprotective effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats
The Gastroprotective effect of Anogeissus leiocarpus aqueous stem bark extract against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in albino rats was investigated. The objective of the present investigation was to assess, in an animal model, the gastroprotective effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus and to screen for possible protective effects of the extract as ulcer remedy. Fifty male and thirty six female albino rats (weighing 160-250g) were used in this study. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids and triterpenes. The median lethal dose (LD50) studies of the aqueous stem bark of A. leiocarpus were found to be above 5000mg/kg body weight orally. Pre-treatment by oral administration of aqueous stem bark extract of A. leiocarpus at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg b.w for 14 days, dose dependently significantly decreased the mean ulcer score, ulcer index, percentage ulceration and preventive index (p˂0.05) induced by 70% ethanol. The standard drug (cimetidine 100mg/kg) also decreased the ulcer parameters. The severity of the reaction to ethanol on gastric mucosa and cytoprotection by aqueous A. leiocarpus were apparent by histological assessment of the gastric mucosa. In conclusion these findings shown that aqueous stem bark extract of A. leiocarpus possess a dose-dependent gastroprotection of the gastric mucosa ulcer parameters and cytoprotectection evident by histopathology. These justify the ethno medicinal use of the plant in the treatment and management of gastric ulcer.