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Study on antibacterial activity of clove (<i>Syzygium aromaticum</i<) crude extract against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Salmonella</i> sp. and <i>Pseudomonas</i>. sp.

I. Shehu
S.B. Sanusi
H.K. Saka


This study was designed to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) seed at varying concentrations; against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp and Pseudomonas sp. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the S. aromaticum extracts was done using standard analytical methods. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of S. aromaticum were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against the isolates using agar well diffusion and broth dilution assay. The results of the phytochemical components revealed the presence of Alkaloid, Flavanoid, Tannin, Saponin, Glycosides, Terpenoid and Phenol in the extracts. Ethanol extract of S. aromaticum displayed antibacterial activity against all the tested organisms with highest activity (27mm at 100mg/mL concentration) on Salmonella. The aqueous extract of clove was found to be less active, though, it was active against all the organisms tested, with highest activity on Salmonella sp (24mm at 100mg/mL concentration). Both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed MIC at 6.25 mg/mL on all the tested isolates with the exception of aqueous extract against E. coli that showed MIC at 12.5 mg/mL. MBC was only observed on ethanolic extract against Salmonella sp. and S. aureus both at 6.25 mg/mL. The results provide a scientific basis for the centuries-old traditional usage of S. aromaticum.